#misinformation #machinelearning #AI
With the expansion of social media and the increasing dissemination of multimedia content, the spread of misinformation has become a major concern. This necessitates effective strategies for multimodal misinformation detection (MMD) that detect whether the combination of an image and its accompanying text could mislead or misinform. Due to the data-intensive nature of deep neural networks and the labor-intensive process of manual annotation, researchers have been exploring various methods for automatically generating synthetic multimodal misinformation - which we refer to as Synthetic Misinformers - in order to train MMD models. However, limited evaluation on real-world misinformation and a lack of comparisons with other Synthetic Misinformers makes difficult to assess progress in the field. To address this, we perform a comparative study on existing and new Synthetic Misinformers that involves (1) out-of-context (OOC) image-caption pairs, (2) cross-modal named entity inconsistency (NEI) as well as (3) hybrid approaches and we evaluate them against real-world misinformation; using the COSMOS benchmark. The comparative study showed that our proposed CLIP-based Named Entity Swapping can lead to MMD models that surpass other OOC and NEI Misinformers in terms of multimodal accuracy and that hybrid approaches can lead to even higher detection accuracy. Nevertheless, after alleviating information leakage from the COSMOS evaluation protocol, low Sensitivity scores indicate that the task is significantly more challenging than previous studies suggested. Finally, our findings showed that NEI-based Synthetic Misinformers tend to suffer from a unimodal bias, where text-only models can outperform multimodal ones.